GaCl3 – GALLIUM (III) CHLORIDE

Properties of gallium (III) chloride:

White, low-melting, volatile; in the gas it dimerizes. Unstable in moist air. It is readily soluble in cold water (hydrolysis on cation). It reacts with hot water, concentrated hydrochloric acid, alkalis, ammonia hydrate.


Molar mass g/mol 176.08
Density g/cm3 2.47
Melting point °C 77.8
Boiling point °C 201.3

Methods for preparation of gallium (III) chloride:

2Ga + 6HCl(diluted) = 2GaCl3 + 3H2↑.

2Ga + 3Cl2 = 2GaCl3 (80-200° C).

Ga2O3 + 6HCl(conc.) = 2GaCl3 + 3H2O.

Ga2O3 + 3SCl2O = 2GaCl3 + 3SO2 (200° C),

Ga2O3 + 6NH4Cl = 2GaCl3 + 6NH3 + 3H2O (250° C).

Ga(OH)3 + 3HCl(diluted) = GaCl3 + 3H2O.

Ga2S3 + 6HCl(diluted) = 2GaCl3 + 3H2S↑.


Chemical reactions with gallium (III) chloride:

GaCl3 • H2O = Ga(Cl)O + 2HCl (above 300° C).

GaCl3(diluted) + 6H2O(cold) = Ga[(H2O)6](3+) + 3Cl(-) (pH < 7).

GaCl3 + 2H2O(hot) = GaCl(OH)2↓ + 2HCl,

GaCl3 + 2H2O(vapor) = GaO(OH) + 3HCl (350° C).

GaCl3 + HCl(conc.) = H[GaCl4] (normal temp.).

GaCl3 + 3NaOH(diluted) = Ga(OH)3↓ + 3NaCl,

GaCl3 + 4NaOH(conc., hot) = Na[Ga(OH)4] + 3NaCl.

GaCl3 + 3(NH3 • H2O)[diluted] = Ga(OH)3↓ + 3NH4Cl,

GaCl3 + 4(NH3 • H2O)[conc., cold] = NH4[Ga(OH)4] + 3NH4Cl.

GaCl3 + 4LiH = Li[GaH4] + 3LiCl↓ (to 10° C, in ether).

4GaCl3 + 2Ga = 3(Ga(+))[GaCl4] (to 150° C).

2GaCl3(melt) = Electrolysis = 2Ga↓(cathode) + 3Cl2↑(anode).


 

Did you know?

Group 17 elements are known as halogens.