GaCl3 – GALLIUM (III) CHLORIDE

Properties of gallium (III) chloride:

White, low-melting, volatile; in the gas it dimerizes. Unstable in moist air. It is readily soluble in cold water (hydrolysis on cation). It reacts with hot water, concentrated hydrochloric acid, alkalis, ammonia hydrate.


Molar mass g/mol 176.08
Density g/cm3 2.47
Melting point °C 77.8
Boiling point °C 201.3

Methods for preparation of gallium (III) chloride:

2Ga + 6HCl(diluted) = 2GaCl3 + 3H2↑.

2Ga + 3Cl2 = 2GaCl3 (80-200° C).

Ga2O3 + 6HCl(conc.) = 2GaCl3 + 3H2O.

Ga2O3 + 3SCl2O = 2GaCl3 + 3SO2 (200° C),

Ga2O3 + 6NH4Cl = 2GaCl3 + 6NH3 + 3H2O (250° C).

Ga(OH)3 + 3HCl(diluted) = GaCl3 + 3H2O.

Ga2S3 + 6HCl(diluted) = 2GaCl3 + 3H2S↑.


Chemical reactions with gallium (III) chloride:

GaCl3 • H2O = Ga(Cl)O + 2HCl (above 300° C).

GaCl3(diluted) + 6H2O(cold) = Ga[(H2O)6](3+) + 3Cl(-) (pH < 7).

GaCl3 + 2H2O(hot) = GaCl(OH)2↓ + 2HCl,

GaCl3 + 2H2O(vapor) = GaO(OH) + 3HCl (350° C).

GaCl3 + HCl(conc.) = H[GaCl4] (normal temp.).

GaCl3 + 3NaOH(diluted) = Ga(OH)3↓ + 3NaCl,

GaCl3 + 4NaOH(conc., hot) = Na[Ga(OH)4] + 3NaCl.

GaCl3 + 3(NH3 • H2O)[diluted] = Ga(OH)3↓ + 3NH4Cl,

GaCl3 + 4(NH3 • H2O)[conc., cold] = NH4[Ga(OH)4] + 3NH4Cl.

GaCl3 + 4LiH = Li[GaH4] + 3LiCl↓ (to 10° C, in ether).

4GaCl3 + 2Ga = 3(Ga(+))[GaCl4] (to 150° C).

2GaCl3(melt) = Electrolysis = 2Ga↓(cathode) + 3Cl2↑(anode).


 

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Our tooth enamel is also the most mineralized chemical in our body, and is made up of hydroxyapatite.